Sidestepping the reasons for such discrimination, this work focuses on the actual Official Anti-Jewish Acts (“OAJA”) of Jewish Discrimination, in part because Official Acts are verifiable and because the Official Acts have produced a broad picture of Jewish discrimination over substantial time and geography. (This work uses the following terms interchangeably: Official Anti-Jewish Acts, Official Acts, OAJA and Acts.)

Official Anti-Jewish Acts for this work are defined as:

“Official Acts against Jews, (in some cases against Jews and others), that were in effect for at least a moment in time. Such Official Acts include, but are not limited to, Official Acts issued by governments, militaries and churches, proclamations, church canons, bulls, patents, ordinances, and final court decisions (such as those on the level of a country Supreme Court).”


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